The title should be descriptive and capture the essence of your overall goal.
An informative summary of the project in 250 words or less that includes the problem, the proposed project, the solution or work plan, the implementation method, and the significance of the proposed course.
Cover Page, Table of Contents, List of Figures, List of Appendices
These are added in long or formal proposals to help the reader find information. If included, they should proceed in this order. You may include a cover page and table of contents without including the others or some other combination of the given items.
Include your qualifications and those of anyone working on the project to make the reviewers feel you are competent to carry out the plan.
Also called the statement of purpose, this section explains why the proposed project is worth approval or funding. It explicitly states the problems being addressed or describes the work’s contributions to knowledge in its field. Ideally, this section should convince your readers that the problem is sufficiently grave to merit putting resources into a solution. If possible, outline the probable benefits of a solution.
Review of the relevant literature
Review the most current knowledge on your topic and demonstrate that you know what others experts in the field have to say about it and related matters. Explain your work’s place among these established researchers to give it significance. Does your work replicate another’s study? Does it challenge the views of a prevalent expert? Does it elaborate on someone else’s work and extend it to new areas?
Description of the Project, Solution, or Work Plan
Be specific and realistic about exactly what you will do. If you are proposing to report on personal research at a conference, make it clear you have conducted the research and explain what you have found. If you want to receive money to conduct research, demonstrate that you know exactly how you will proceed. Don’t promise what you can’t deliver: the plan should be feasible and plausible. Never overpromise or inflate, but do show enthusiasm and passion for the project.
Describe your work’s contribution to knowledge, whether to your field or to society at large. If you are proposing a method, tell how your method is optimal. Are you offering a new point of view, a new theory, a refinement on an old theory? Are you offering an innovative approach to an old problem or helping solve a new one? How will accepting your proposal benefit your readers? Will they see a tangible or measurable result from your work?
At all levels, be as specific as possible about what you will do. You might also address methods others have used and whether you are making refinements to their processes.
The problems section is different from problem identification. This section, typically brief, offers a frank acknowledgement of barriers that might impede your progress or derail your project. To offset the negative impact, make it clear that you are thinking through possible problems so they don’t catch you unaware. Give solutions or alternatives you might take to breach potential obstacles.
Present your expected costs and revenue (if any) specifically and clearly. Don’t hide costs or lump items together in a way that suggests you’re padding the budget or concealing something.
The timeline shows you have a realistic view of what you can achieve and how long it will take. It indicates that you’re prepared and have time management skills.
Any research or literature you cited or consulted in preparing your proposal should be cited.
Appendices: Supplementary Material or Data
If including data in the report would make it too long, but you feel the information supports your argument, you can place it in an appendix. You can also use appendices for letters of support, copies of surveys, proof from an Institutional Review Board that you have their permission for, and so on. If the budget or timeline is long or complex, you might add it to the appendices as well. Separate out each item and label it as an appendix. Include a list of appendices with the table of contents. If something in the appendices is particularly important, make sure you have included a reference to it in the main proposal, usually in parentheses (Appendix 1). In your final draft, make sure all parts fit together and that all necessary data is included.
Following prescribed proposal guidelines is one way to show respect for your readers; another is to proofread the proposal so that it is error-free and readable. Look for grammatical or spelling errors, but also check the accuracy of numbers, dates, and facts. Ask a friend or colleague to proofread your work after you’ve finished reviewing it; a fresh set of eyes will often see problems you’ve missed. No matter how innovative or groundbreaking your ideas are, they will be ignored if your proposal makes you look careless, misinformed, or sloppy.