Citations in text
1. Citations by names of authors, the Harvard system: references arranged alphabetically at the end.
Eg: There are widespread concerns that the post-industrial process of economic change comes with increasing labour market polarisation, driven by the changing composition of jobs (Autor et al., 2006; Goos and Manning, 2007; Goos et al., 2009).
2. Citations by numbers, the Vancouver system: numbered list of references at the end.
Eg: Peer review is a major mechanism for selecting significant and reliable scientific contributions from among the growing number of dubious submissions to scholarly journals. In addition, comments and recommendations from reviewers contribute to improving the reviewed contributions.1
- Citations in text, Harvard and Vancouver combined
Eg: journals for research and 41% for teaching, reported Tenopir and King. (Tenopir and King, 2005, P.802)¹.
Numbered citations: details for Vancouver
- Position: normal (in line’) or superscripts?
- Posture: normal (roman) or italics?
- Enclosure: none or round brackets (parentheses) or in square brackets
- Placement: before punctuation or after
- Sequence: numerical or out of sequence (because references arranged alphabetically by author)?
Author(s) and year citations: details
- How many names before ‘et al.’: two, three, six, …
- et al. or et al. (in italics)?
- et (Latin for ‘and’) is never followed by a full stop.
- Author(s), year OR Author(s) year?
- Multiple citations can be alphabetical, chronological or reverse chronological.
- Relevant instructions from Ear and Hearing (based on APA style)
- Follow a name-year system without a comma between the “et al.” and year (e.g., Hampshire et al. 2013) or between a single author’s last name and the year (e.g., Brown 2011) unless there are multiple references (e.g., Stevenson 2008, 2012).
- Multiple citations in chronological order (Smith 1994; Jones et al. 1995)
- First author’s last name plus “et al.” for references with 3 or more authors (e.g., Dorn et al. 1998)
- Do not use comma before “et al.”
- Use “and” in the case of direct references, e.g., “Brown and Tom (1995) stated…” and “&” for indirect (e.g., Brown & Tom 1995).
- Citations can be in chronological order. Eg: (Treisman and Zhang, 2006; Hollingworth, 2007; Richard et al., 2008; Logie et al., 2011).
- Citations can be in reverse chronological order. Eg: (Weaver and Nemeth 2007; Onkar et al. 2007; Shukla et al. 2005; Shukla et al. 2004).
- Citations in alphabetical order Plant domestication is a very popular topic, subject to multidisciplinary research methodologies (Abbo et al. 2012; Allaby 2010; Burger et al. 2008; Diamond 2002; Doebley et al. 2006; Gepts 2004; Ross-Ibarra et al. 2007; Zeder et al. 2006).
- Citing same author/ authors but different year In this scenario.
In citations, use initials of authors only if required
• Harvard-style citations permit only the last names (family names or surnames) of authors, neither first names nor initials.
• However, use initials to separate authors with the same last name when the year is also the same, as in
It was established (M lyer, 2014) that although rural Indian households use LPG, they do not replace fuelwood. Therefore, the better option to decrease the land required for cooking-fuel by using an improved cookstoves, which can reduce fuelwood use by one-third (R D lyer, 2014).
Citing sources not consulted
- Ideally, you should have seen for yourself every source you cite.
- If that is not possible, mention the original source (the one you have not seen) and the secondary source-which alone appears under references.
- The myth that spinach is a good source of iron was born in the 1930s, due to a misplaced decimal that put the concentration at ten times the real value (Hamblin 1981, as cited in Larsson 1995).
The paper by Hamblin does not appear in the list of references; the paper by Larsson does.
References versus bibliography
- References: details of sources cited, or referred to, in text
- Bibliography: sources used but not specifically cited
Warning from a journal
- Literature cited: citations in text must be checked for consistency with those under References. Authors must pay serious attention to the formatting of references.
- “Manuscripts will be returned even without reviewing if reference style is not adhered to.”
- “too many authors seem to fade out when they reach the references when preparing a manuscript and subsequently omit some from either the text or reference list as well as formatting them incorrectly!”
-Jenny Shattock, editorial assistant, Plant Pathology
- Errors also present in top medical journals according to study.
- Elements or parts of a reference
- Sequence and details of elements
- Punctuation between elements
Elements, or parts, of a reference
- Paper in a journal? Chapter in a book? A whole book? Presentation at a conference? Webpage? News item?
- Author/s and year of publication
- Title of the contribution
- Source details: title of article, chapter, etc. | title of journal, book, conference, etc. | editor/s | volume-, issue-, page numbers | publisher and place of publication | edition if not first dates and place of the conference |conference organizer | URL | Date accessed.
Issue number essential for magazines
- Most journals begin only a new volume, not every new issue, with page 1.
- Most magazines begin every new issue with page 1.
- Issue number, therefore, is essential for magazines
- ‘Inverting’ names (last name first, then initials)
- Only the first author’s name inverted
In the following references, note the sequence: the first author’s name is inverted [last name first, then initials]; names of the rest of the authors are not inverted.
Eg: Balmford, A. A. Bruner, P. Cooper, R. Costanza, S. Farber, R.E. Green, M. Jenkins, et al. 2002. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297(5583): 950.
Different placement of the year of publication
In the first example, the year follows the authors (mirroring the citations); in the second, the year is moved later, placed between the journal and its volume number.
Eg: Bardwell, L.V. 1991. Problem-framing: a perspective on environmental problem-solving. Environmental Management 15(5): 603-612.
Lynch, J.P. Turner review no. 14. Roots of the second green revolution. Aust. J. Bot. 2007, 55, 493-512.
How papers with hundreds of authors can be cited?
- List the first six authors.
- Skip all the rest except the lat, represent omission with ellipsis (…..)
- End the list with last author.
Eg: paper title : Fruit-fly paper has 1,000 authors
Singh P K, Daniel R, Gupta P K, Kaul S T, Smith G, Roy G M… Menon R. 2014. Offshore turbines. Energy 34: 5-12
Details of elements: titles of papers, journal names, etc.
- Titles of papers to be within quotation marks? (More common in the humanities)
- Titles of papers in title case or sentence case?
- Journal names to be abbreviated?
- If abbreviated, dots after abbreviated words?
- One-word names of journals are not abbreviated.
- Journal name spelt out in full, in italics.
Eg: HILEY, P.J., BYFORD, H. L., HALLFORD, D. M., CAMPBELL, J. W. & PEHEZ-EGULA, E. (1995). Physiological responses of beef cattle to Gulf coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations. Journal of Economic Entomology 88, 320-325.
- Journal name abbreviated; in italics, dots after abbreviations.
Eg: Lynch, J.P. Turner review no. 14. Roots of the second green revolution. Aust. J. Bot. 2007, 55, 493-512.
- Journal name abbreviated; no dots after abbreviations, no italics.
Eg: Vogel CR, Willden RHJ (2017b) Multi-rotor tidal stream turbine fence performance and operation. Int J Marine Energy 19:198-206.
Example of trivial differences in formatting volume number
- Followed by comma and page numbers
- Followed by colon and page numbers; no space before colon
- Bold, followed by a comma and a space
- Italics, followed by comma and page numbers
- Preceded by semicolon (no space) and followed by issue number
- Preceded by the word ‘vol.’ and followed by comma.
References to web pages
- American Psychological Association format
Use the template shown next to construct references for unpublished works.
|Author, A. A., & Author, B.B.||(2020).||Title of the work [Unpublished manuscript]|
Title of work [Manuscript in preparation]
Title of work [Manuscript submitted for publication].
|Department Name, University Name.||https://xxxxxx|
- Example of the Oxford University Press style
Eg: Allaby, Michael, ‘Feathers and Lava Lamps’, Oxford Reference (2013), http://www.oxfordreference.com/page/featherslavalamps,accessed 9 Nov. 2013.
Digital tools for handling citations and references
- Spellcheck: click ‘Ignore all’ for names of authors
- Titles of papers in title case or sentence case?
- Citationsy, Bibme, Edifix, APA Wizard, etc.: search for citation machines.
- Open source software packages such as Zotero and Mendeley
- Word macros, mail merge
- Also, don’t depend on digital tools more.
“Many of the messages presented in respectable scientific publications are, in fact, based on various forms of rumors. Some of these rumors appear so frequently, and in such complex, colorful, and entertaining ways that we can think of them as academic urban legends. The explanation for this phenomenon is usually that authors have lazily, sloppily, or fraudulently employed sources, and peer reviewers and editors have not discovered these weaknesses in the manuscripts during evaluation.”
Source: Rekdal O B. 2014. Academic urban legends. Social Studies of Science 44: 638-654
- Cite only those sources you have consulted yourself.
- Avoid copying whole chunks of published text.
- Paraphrase, but retain the intended meaning.
- Examine the citation and referencing style of target journal in detail.
- Reference fully and accurately, following the correct format.
- Engage actively with sources of information instead of using digital tools.